Temperate and Tropical Rainforests: Exploring the Types of Rainforests

Rainforests are some of the most biodiverse ecosystems on our planet, housing a wealth of plant and animal life. However, not all rainforests are created equal. In fact, there are two main types of rainforests: tropical and temperate. Tropical rainforests are found near the equator, where temperatures stay warm year-round. Temperate rainforests occur in cooler, coastal areas further from the equator. While both types of rainforests experience high amounts of rain and help regulate climate, they have some key differences in location, climate, plant and animal diversity, and threats they face from human activity.

The purpose of this article is to explore and contrast these two major rainforest types to better understand what distinguishes them and to provide valuable insights into the world of rainforests. By comparing tropical and temperate rainforests across various factors, we can gain deeper insight into their unique attributes and why both kinds play vital roles on the planet.

Understanding rainforest types.

Tropical Rainforests.

Tropical rainforests are lush forests found near the equator, usually in Central and South America, Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. They thrive in hot, humid climates with frequent rainfall and consistent warmth year-round that provide ideal growing conditions. Tropical rainforests are characterized by a dense, multi-layered canopy and an incredible diversity of plant and animal species.

Tropical Rainforest
Amazon Tropical Rainforest located in Brazil, Southern America.

Iconic tropical rainforest flora includes mahogany trees, orchids, ferns, and vines, while fauna includes primates like gorillas and chimpanzees, big cats like jaguars, colorful birds like macaws and toucans, and a vast array of insects and amphibians. 

Temperate Rainforests.

In contrast, temperate rainforests occur further from the equator in cooler coastal regions, mostly along the Pacific coastlines of North and South America, New Zealand, Australia, and parts of Europe and East Asia. Instead of consistent heat and humidity, temperate rainforests experience milder temperatures, lower rainfall, and defined seasons. Temperate rainforests tend to have shorter trees and more moss covering the branches and forest floor.

Temperate Rainforest
The Great Bear Rainforest in British Columbia, Canada.

Unique temperate rainforest fauna includes Canadian lynx, black bears, emperor newts, and marbled murrelets, while iconic flora includes mountain hemlock, redwood trees, and sword ferns.

Key Differences Between Tropical and Temperate Rainforests.

Climate differences.

One of the most noticeable differences between tropical and temperate rainforests is their climates. While both types of rainforests receive a lot of rain, the temperatures and weather patterns in each are quite different.

Tropical rainforests are located near the equator, where temperatures are warm year-round. The average temperature in tropical rainforests is between 77 and 86°F (25 and 30°C) year-round, with high humidity levels frequently exceeding 77%. These regions typically receive plentiful rainfall (over 2 meters annually), with a distinct rainy season and a dry season.

In contrast, temperate rainforests are found in cooler, more temperate climates, typically along coastal areas. These rainforests experience a wider range of temperatures, with average temperatures ranging from 39–68 °F (4–20 °C). Temperate rainforests receive less rainfall than tropical rainforests, typically between 140 and 400 cm annually, and lower humidity, around 75% on average. However, they often experience fog and mist, which helps to sustain their moisture levels. Temperate rainforests also experience four distinct seasons, which impacts vegetation cycles

The warmer, consistently humid tropical climate gives rise to taller, stratified vegetation with vines and epiphytes.  Meanwhile, cooler temperatures limit tree height in temperate rainforests, while moss and lichens thrive in the humidity.

Fauna species differences.

Tropical rainforests are known for their high biodiversity, especially in terms of animal species. They are home to a wide variety of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and insects, many of which are found nowhere else in the world. Some of the iconic animals that can be found in tropical rainforests include monkeys, jaguars, toucans, pink dolphins, poison dart frogs, and more.

poison dart frog in the tropical rainforest
Poison dart frog typical to tropical rainforests

Temperate rainforests, on the other hand, have a lower diversity of animal species compared to their tropical counterparts. However, they still harbor some unique and interesting animals, such as the Northern spotted owl, black bears, bald eagles, cougars, Pacific salmon, and more.

Floral species.

Tropical rainforests are characterized by their lush vegetation, including tall trees, dense vines, and a variety of epiphytes. The vegetation is so dense that sunlight barely penetrates the canopy, creating a dim and humid environment on the forest floor. Some of the iconic tree species found in tropical rainforests include mahogany, teak, and ebony.

Temperate rainforests, on the other hand, have a more open canopy and a mix of deciduous and evergreen trees. Some of the iconic tree species found in temperate rainforests include redwoods, cedars, and spruces. The forest floor is also covered in mosses, ferns, and other ground-level vegetation.

Redwood and ferns in a temperate Rainforest
Redwood and ferns traditional to temperate rainforest.

Soil and Nutrient Cycling.

Due to abundant warmth and rainfall, tropical rainforests have highly weathered, nutrient-poor soils. Nutrients are quickly recycled by rapid plant decomposition and are primarily stored within the massive forest biomass rather than the soil. Temperate rainforests have soils with higher nutrient content, especially nitrogen, including large amounts of organic matter like thick forest floors from accumulated plant debris. With more nutrients contained within the soil itself, productivity relies less heavily on rapid plant decomposition rates.

Largest tropical and temperate rainforests in the world.

The three largest tropical rainforests in the world are:

  1. The Amazon Rainforest is the largest tropical rainforest in the world, covering about 5.5 million square kilometers in South America. Learn more about FUNDTHEPLANET’s conservation efforts and how you can be a part of it!
  2. The Congo Rainforest is the second-largest tropical rainforest, covering approximately 2 million square kilometers in Central Africa.
  3. The Indonesian Rainforest is the third-largest tropical rainforest, covering around 1.8 million square kilometers in Southeast Asia.

The three largest temperate rainforests in the world are:

  1. The Tongass National Forest in Alaska is the largest temperate rainforest in the world, covering about 68,000 square kilometers.
  2. The Valdivian Rainforest in Chile and Argentina is the second-largest temperate rainforest, covering around 248,100 square kilometers.
  3. The Great Bear Rainforest in British Columbia, Canada, is the third-largest temperate rainforest, covering approximately 64,000 square kilometers.

Threats and Conservation Efforts.

Both tropical and temperate forests face considerable threats, most notably from deforestation and resource extraction activities like logging and mining. Rainforests also suffer from the effects of climate change, including rising temperatures, drought, wildfires, and disease outbreaks. These threats gravely endanger rainforest integrity and biodiversity. Approximately 80,000 acres of rainforest are lost daily, predominantly in the tropics. However, rainforests provide invaluable ecological services and contain over half the planet’s terrestrial species, underscoring the importance of conservation. International efforts are underway to protect remaining rainforests, including habitat restoration projects, the establishment of protected areas, tree replanting campaigns, and promoting sustainable land-use policies. Urgent action must continue to preserve these epicenters of biodiversity and essential buffers against climate change for the health of rainforest ecosystems and the benefit of all life on Earth.

Conclusion.

Tropical and temperate rainforests are both biodiverse ecosystems that have unique characteristics that set them apart from each other. While tropical rainforests have warm temperatures and high rainfall, temperate rainforests have cooler temperatures and receive less rainfall. Tropical rainforests have higher biodiversity, with many unique animal species such as jaguars and poison dart frogs, while temperate rainforests have fewer species but still harbor unique animals like the Northern spotted owl and black bears.

The vegetation in tropical rainforests is dominated by tall trees and dense vines, whereas temperate rainforests have a more open canopy with a mix of deciduous and evergreen trees. Both types of rainforests face threats from human activities such as deforestation and climate change, but the specific threats and conservation challenges vary.

Frequently Asked Questions about Temperate and Tropical Rainforests.

What is the difference between a temperate rainforest and a tropical rainforest?

The main differences between temperate and tropical rainforests are their locations, climates, and dominant tree species. Temperate rainforests are found in cooler, high-latitude regions of the world, have a more moderate climate, and are dominated by coniferous trees, while tropical rainforests are found closer to the equator, have a hot and humid climate, and are dominated by broadleaf evergreen trees.

What are the main threats to rainforests?

The main threats to rainforests include deforestation, climate change, habitat fragmentation, and the introduction of invasive species. Deforestation for agriculture, logging, and other human activities is a major concern for both temperate and tropical rainforests, as it leads to habitat loss and a decline in biodiversity.

Why are rainforests important to the planet?

Rainforests play a critical role in regulating the Earth’s climate, producing oxygen, and storing carbon. They also support a high level of biodiversity, with many species of plants and animals found only in these ecosystems. Rainforests are also important for human societies, providing food, medicines, and other resources.

 

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